Institute history

History

Tracing back the history of our institute one can notice that it always had a certain part in the development of the glass and ceramics industry, especially in the Saxon region, since it earliest commencements.

Already before the year of the foundation of the Bergakademie strong relations between Freiberg's mountain officials, entrusted with the apprenticeship, and the porcelain manufacture in Meißen, being founded in 1710, were established.

In this context it is necessary to mention the Bergrat Pabst von Ohain, who belonged to the supervisory staff of the activity of Johann Friedrich Böttger. He called himself an Arkanist, meaning he knew the technology of porcelain manufacture, which was kept secret. His main merit was that with miner Samuel Stöltzel (1685 - 1737), educated in Freiberg, he introduced a talented person to the manufactory. A big part in expansion of the manufactory also had the then famous Bergrat Johann Friedrich Henkel (1697 - 1744), who taught Chemistry and Metallurgy before the foundation of the Bergakademie in Freiberg. From the script of one of his student becomes apparent that in his lecture about "Mining-science" he mentioned the manufacture of "Stones, Earths, Porcelain and so on" among other mining and metallurgical branches of industry.

M. A. Lomonossow and D. I. Winogradow, who studied under Henkel, achieved astonishing things in the field of silicate metallurgy in Russia. Lomonossow, who wrote the nature philosophical poem "A Letter about the Usefulness of Glass" in 1752, founded a colour-glass-plant near St. Petersburg in 1753, which he equipped according to his very own plans. Winogradow is said to be the creator of the Russian porcelain. He took an effect as a scientific assistant of the Imperial Russian Porcelain Manufacture, which was founded in St. Petersburg in 1744.

Christlieb Ehregott Gellert (1713 - 1795), the famous metallurgist and first professor of metallurgical chemistry at the Bergakademie, investigated among many other pieces of work, in the field of metallurgy the "Behaviour of the Species of Mountains in the Melting Fire".

Gellerts successor, August Wilhelm Lampadius (1772 - 1842) appointed in 1795, immediately recognized the great meaning of such construction materials for the metallurgy. In his public lectures of Technical Chemistry, he, among other themes, dealt mainly with ceramics and the technology of glasses.

After Lampadius, no lectures were hold at the Bergakademie, which gave an overall view or a general introduction to our subject.

In the first book of the "General Metallurgy" of Professor Carl Friedrich Plattner (1800 - 1858) from the year 1860, a list of the oven construction materials used at this time can be found on one and a half pages.

In the "Manual of Iron Metallurgy" (1906) of Professor Carl Adolf Ledebur (1837 - 1906), we can already find a more specific description of single refractories.

Under Professor Clemens Winkler (1838 - 1904), the Chemical Technology became an examination subject in Freiberg. Among other themes, the manufacture of Glass and Clay Ware formed part of his lecture.

With Carl Schiffner, appointed professor of Metallurgical Science in 1903, the Silicate Metallurgy had a first intercessor at the Bergakademie. As early as 1903, his plan was the foundation of a chair with research laboratories for the education of engineers of ceramics and cements. However, the Saxon government of the land was not able to raise funds for the equipment of the ceramic training and educational facilities.

However, in the Thirties at least some parts of the silicate metallurgy had been considered by appointing some lecturers.
After the question of competence for ceramic had fallen to the Bergakademie in 1931, after it had been unclear between the Technical University of Dresden and the Bergakademie of Freiberg for decades. Nevertheless, the special department was abolished in 1932 by the Saxon Ministry of Finance because of financial reasons before it had been fully introduced. Since then until 1945, there have hardly been any efforts to accommodate ceramics to the Bergakademie.

In 1946, under the rector of Professor Diepschlag of the faculty of Mining and Metallurgy, the curriculum for the metallurgy was worked out and negotiations for extending this field were initiated which led to the edification of the Professorship of Ceramics in 1950. At the end of March in 1950 Theodor Haase was appointed for the Professorship of Ceramics and charged with the foundation of the Institute of Ceramics.

At first the Institute of Ceramics was placed in the Institute of Research for Lignite. The lectures "Refractory Construction Materials" and "Ceramic Technology" were able to start in the winter term 1950/1951. In 1951 the institute could move into an own house - the freshly vacated household school Agricolastraße 17 - which met the requirements during the first years. However, it needed to be enlarged by building extensions during the years 1958 – 1960.

Because of the essentially enlarged terms of reference, the institute and the field received the name "Silicate Metallurgy" in 1954 by permission of the State Office for University and Technical Education.

Since 1954 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Paul Beyersdorfer lectured on "Glass Metallurgy" and the to this lecture belonging tutorials. From 1954 to 1962 Dr. rer. nat. Armin Petzold worked as assistant director at the institute. His lectures about "Enamel Chemistry and Technology" and "Technology of Adhesives" rounded off the content of the curriculum of Silicate Metallurgy.

Within the scope of the third university reform, the field and the institute received the designation Scientific Sector of Silicate Technology in 1968 and now belonged to the section of Process Engineering and Silicate Engineering.

In 1978 the academic discipline of "Inorganic Non-metallic Materials" was transferred to the section of process engineering and silicate engineering and was united with the branch of learning of silicate technology to form one branch.

Prof. Michalowsky was appointed to the professorship of the Inorganic Non-metallic Materials in 1982 that was vacant since 1976. In 1988, the Inorganic Non-metallic Materials were liberated from the section of process engineering and silicate engineering.

From 1979 to 2001 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Schulle was the professor of Ceramics at the institute of Silicate Technology. After Prof. Dr. Günther Nölle who lectured Glass Metallurgy, Prof. Dr. Heiko Hessenkemper was appointed professor of Glass and Enamel Technology in 1995.

In 1992, the Saxon Ministry of State for Sciences and Art introduced the Professorship of Cement and Construction Materials and appointed Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ernst Schlegel professor of the new right.

Since 1990, the institute, in terms of its foundation, is again an Institute of Silicate Technology.

In the year 2000, the institute celebrated its 50th anniversary.

In December 2001 Prof. Dr. Christos G. Aneziris was appointed successor of Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schulle as professor of Ceramics.

In October 2002, Prof. Dr. Thomas A. Bier was appointed successor of Prof. Dr. Ernst Schlegel as professor of Construction Materials. Towards the end of the same year followed the renaming of the institute into Institute of Ceramics, Glass and Construction Materials.